A Year of Generative AI News

By Mary Warner posted 11-28-2023 08:00 AM


When ChatGPT was released on November 30, 2022, it created a year of excitement, controversy, and contemplation. Though some form of generative artificial intelligence (GAI) backed by large language models (LLMs) has been around for decades, the release of ChatGPT and similarly accessible tools brought GAI to the public. It has also shaken the legal world by the lapels, with calls to adapt to the “new” technology or get left behind. But don’t rely on it for case citations in a court filing without double-checking its output, or you may wind up sanctioned for the non-existent cases it hallucinates. (Molly Bohannon, Lawyer Used ChatGPT In Court—And Cited Fake Cases. A Judge Is Considering Sanctions, Forbes (June 8, 2023),

Having followed the rapidly unfolding story of GAI over the past year, I have collected numerous articles related to its evolution and society’s conversations around how to use this technology without allowing it to bring about humanity’s doom. I’m not being hyperbolic there. Some of the creators of GAI are certain it will become so “smart” that it will cause our demise. Others have been more concerned about the harms it can currently cause because the LLMs used to train it are filled with systemic biases and were trained on copyrighted materials. Then, too, because of the computing power needed to run GAI, there is a significant environmental cost to operating it.

While some are running full throttle towards GAI, others are pumping the brakes, wrestling with the ethical and legal challenges it causes and crafting policies and regulations related to its use. Still others are finding ways to fight back against our robot overlords, like the artists who have created a tool that corrupts the output of GAI.

As I was putting the finishing touches on this article, OpenAI, the hybrid nonprofit/for-profit organization behind ChatGPT, ousted its CEO, Sam Altman. Over an intrigue-filled week, during which most of OpenAI’s 770 employees threatened to quit, Altman was hired by Microsoft, then a majority of the board resigned, and Altman was rehired by OpenAI. (Matt O’Brien and Haleluya Hadero, OpenAI brings back Sam Altman as CEO just days after his firing unleashed chaos, The Associated Press (November 22, 2023), In an analysis from National Public Radio, the struggle over who should lead OpenAI is a result of its competing missions, the nonprofit mission to "benefit humanity as a whole, unconstrained by a need to generate financial return," and its for-profit mission to create a product that makes money and captures the GAI market. (Bobby Allyn, How OpenAI's origins explain the Sam Altman drama, NPR (November 24, 2023),

With that introduction, here is a list of articles on GAI from the past year, presented in date order under each theme. Because there are so many items listed, I have written an intro for each section and highlighted ten articles in bold that I found to be particularly insightful.

Though it’s only been a year, note how quickly the conversation and issues have developed around GAI for the masses.


Addendum - 12/1/2023: Since publishing this post on 11/28/2023, a number of anniversary posts have been written about ChatGPT and generative AI. Here's a great timeline from Stephanie Wilkins at ALM: 

Stephanie Wilkins, 2023: A Legal AI Odyssey, ALM Global, LLC. (November 30, 2023),

Generative AI Tools

While ChatGPT may be the best known of the readily-availably text-based GAI applications, there are others available, including image-generating AI apps, like DALL-E2 and video-generating apps, like Synthesia and WZRD, as well as AI coding apps, like GitHub’s Copilot. As GAI continues to develop, tech companies of all sizes are finding ways to work it into their services. The legal research platform, Fastcase, for example, recently merged with vLex, which is bringing its Vincent AI tool to Fastcase’s vast legal research library. The law practice management software Clio is in the process of adding GAI in a product called Clio Duo. And search engines, like Google and Bing, are building AI directly into their services.





GitHub Copilot:

Introducing GPTs, OpenAI (November 6, 2023),

Andrew Tarantola, You can now generate AI images directly in the Google Search bar, Engadget (October 12, 2023),

How Generative AI Works & Definitions

From LLMs and hallucinations to prompt engineering, GAI has its own mode of operation and language. Here are some resources that explain how GAI works and provide definitions related to the technology.

Stephen Wolfram, What Is ChatGPT Doing … and Why Does It Work? Stephen Wolfram Writings (February 14, 2023),

Bruce Schneier, Open-Source LLMs, Schneier on Security (June 2, 2023),

Stephanie Wilkins & Rhys Dipshan, The Artificial Intelligence Glossary, Legaltech News (October 21, 2023),

Reed Albergotti, New synthetic data techniques could change the way AI models are trained, Semafor (November 3, 2023),

IBM, How Large Language Models Work, YouTube, (Accessed November 9, 2023),

Generative AI, Legal Tech & the Law

Because the legal field relies so heavily on text, legal tech companies and some attorneys are eager to adapt generative AI for their work. Though GAI promises efficiencies in many legal tasks, it also comes with the problem of hallucinations. It has a tendency to make things up, particularly if the LLMs being used aren’t specific to the legal arena or a law firm’s case files. GAI also intersects with the legal field through intellectual property rights and in lawsuits related to its use during trials.

Included in this section are articles on GAI products and trends within the legal field. By reading the titles and noting the dates of the resources in this section, you’ll see how quickly GAI for legal has been developing over the course of the year.

LEGAL AI UPDATE 2023: Generative AI & The Legal Profession Generative AI Captures Imagination of Lawyers, Law Students, Consumers, LexisNexis (2023) This report summarizes a larger report that reveals how attorneys are thinking about GAI. The full report is available for download here:

James E. Baker, Laurie N. Hobart, and Matthew Mittelsteadt, An Introduction to Artificial Intelligence for Federal Judges, Federal Judicial Center (2023),

Cal Jeffrey, "Robot lawyer" to present arguments in world's first AI-defended legal trial in February, TechSpot (January 6, 2023),

Nicole Black, ChatGPT: What It Is And Why It Matters To Lawyers, Above the Law (January 19, 2023),

Bob Ambrogi, New GPT-Based Chat App from LawDroid Is A Lawyer’s ‘Copilot’ for Research, Drafting, Brainstorming and More, LawSites (January 25, 2023),

Bob Ambrogi, Docket Alarm Now Uses GPT-3 To Show You Summaries Of PDF Litigation Filings As You Review Docket Sheets, LawSites (January 31, 2023),

Janus Rose, A Judge Just Used ChatGPT to Make a Court Decision, Vice (February 3, 2023),

Stephanie Wilkins, How GPT-4 Mastered the Entire Bar Exam, and Why That Matters, ALM Global, LLC. (March 17, 2023),

Ryan McClead, Greg Lambert, and Toby Brown, AI-Pocalypse: The Shocking Impact on Law Firm Profitability, 3 Geeks and a Law Blog (August 3, 2023),

Isha Marathe, How Much? Law Firms Grappling With Cost of Leveraging Generative AI in E-Discovery, ALM Global, LLC. (September 26, 2023),

Stephanie Wilkins, Legal Enters Full Education Mode as Generative AI Strengthens Its Hold on the Industry, ALM Global, LLC. (October 19, 2023),

Cassandra Coyer, New Learning Curve: Knowing When and How to Pick Generative AI, ALM Global, LLC. (October 20, 2023),

Stephanie Wilkins, Co-Founder Defends Tech's Use in Pras Michel Trial, Calls Allegations a ‘Creative Act of Fiction’, ALM Global, LLC. (November 8, 2023),

Melodi Dincer, Jake Karr, Jason Schultz, and Michael Weinberg, Generative AI Legal Explainer, Knowing Machines (accessed November 10, 2023),

Isha Marathe, For 'Unhappy' Law Firms, There's Little Recourse From Fast Rising Legal Tech Prices, ALM Global, LLC. (November 13, 2023),

Bob Ambrogi, LexisNexis Unveils Two New Generative AI Products, LawSites (November 14, 2023),

Cassandra Coyer, It’s Not Just Judges That Want Mandatory AI Disclosures, ALM Global, LLC. (November 14, 2023),

Bob Ambrogi, Generative AI, Having Already Passed the Bar Exam, Now Passes the Legal Ethics Exam, LawSites (November 14, 2023), 

Thomson Reuters Launches Generative AI-Powered Solutions to Transform How Legal Professionals Work, Thomson Reuters (November 15, 2023),

Intellectual Property & Generative AI

The Generative AI Legal Explainer linked in the last section is a great lead-in to issues related to intellectual property rights and GAI. Because so much copyrighted material has been used to train the Foundational Models and Large Language Models behind GAI’s output, creators of these materials, the majority of whom have not been compensated for this use, are seeking legal remedies. So, too, are people whose likenesses are being reproduced through GAI in unauthorized ways. It is no surprise that both the Writers Guild of America and Screen Actors Guild-American Federation of Television and Radio Artists (SAG-AFTRA) strikes ended with agreements that attempt to limit GAI’s potential negative effects on writers’ and actors’ careers.

Benj Edwards, AI-generated comic artwork loses US Copyright protection, ArsTechnica (February 23, 2023),

Webb Wright, What you need to know about copyright issues surrounding generative AI, The Drum (August 1, 2023),

Howard Hogan, Connor Sullivan, and Jeffrey Myers, Copyright Liability for Generative AI Pivots on Fair Use Doctrine, Bloomberg Law (September 22, 2023),

Doug Austin, ChatGPT and Copyrights: Where Do You Draw the Line?: Artificial Intelligence Trends, eDiscovery Today (October 16, 2023),

Chris Williams, Will Only The Real Scarlett Johansson Stand Up? These deepfakes are causing deep legal trouble. Above the Law (November 2, 2023),

Generative AI: Art & Culture

Through the arts and culture, people are figuring out creative uses for GAI, from making AI clones to tracking Earth sciences to translating songs into other languages. They are also commenting on how GAI can get culture wrong, such as in the article, AI and the American Smile: How AI misrepresents culture through a facial expression, linked below.

Chloe Xiang, I Made an AI Clone of Myself, Vice (February 22, 2023),

jenka, AI and the American Smile: How AI misrepresents culture through a facial expression. Medium (March 26, 2023),

Greg Lambert and Marlene Gebauer, From Pain to Creativity: How AI Helped Kristina Kashtanova Illustrate Their “Zarya of the Dawn” Story – featuring Richmond Law’s Ashley Dobbs and Roger Skalbeck (TGIR Ep. 196), 3 Geeks and a Law Blog (April 7, 2023),

Chris Farrell and Matt Alvarez, AI has moved into the art world, MPR News (August 2, 2023),

Andrew Tarantola, IBM and NASA teamed up to build the GPT of Earth sciences, Engadget (August 2, 2023),

Kish Lal, HOW GENERATIVE AI IS CHANGING THE FASHION WORKFORCE: Is AI coming for fashion jobs? Maybe — but it will also create new ones. Fashionista (September 18, 2023),

Reed Albergotti, A global hit: AI translation tools help singers break down borders, Semafor (November 10, 2023),

Negative Uses & Fears of Generative AI

As mentioned in the intro, some of the creators of the newest versions of generative AI are afraid that it will turn on humankind and destroy us all. Which calls to mind a quote by Dr. Ian Malcolm, played by Jeff Goldblum, in the first Jurassic Park movie: “...Your scientists were so preoccupied with whether or not they could, they didn’t stop to think if they should.”

In response, others who have worked with developing LLMs and GAI, like linguist Emily Bender, computer scientist Timnit Gebru, and Pulitzer Prize winning author Mitchell S. Jackson, warned that the systemic bias built into GAI and the wholesale harvesting of online data to train the models, as well as the propaganda GAIs can create, are a more immediate threat. Others have been looking at the tremendous amount of energy GAI uses and considering its environmental impact.

Olivia Snow, ‘Magic Avatar’ App Lensa Generated Nudes From My Childhood Photos: The dreamy picture-editing AI is a nightmare waiting to happen. Wired (December 7, 2022),

Dan Goodin, ChatGPT is enabling script kiddies to write functional malware, Ars Technica (January 6, 2023),

Bruce Schneier, Defending against AI Lobbyists, Schneier on Security (February 17, 2023),

Elizabeth Weil, You Are Not a Parrot And a chatbot is not a human. And a linguist named Emily M. Bender is very worried what will happen when we forget this. New York Magazine Intelligencer (March 1, 2023),

Alexander Hanff, Why ChatGPT should be considered a malevolent AI – and be destroyed, The Register (March 2, 2023),

Benj Edwards, OpenAI checked to see whether GPT-4 could take over the world, Ars Technica (March 15, 2023),

Michael Atleson, Chatbots, deepfakes, and voice clones: AI deception for sale, Federal Trade Commission (March 20, 2023), (The author of this FTC article references exactly the same Ian Malcolm quote that I did above. It’s a memorable quote that fits our current GAI situation.)

Pause Giant AI Experiments: An Open Letter. We call on all AI labs to immediately pause for at least 6 months the training of AI systems more powerful than GPT-4. Future of Life Institute (March 22, 2023), – As of November 13, 2023, this open letter calling for a pause in training AI systems had 33,711 signatories.

Bruce Schneier, Using LLMs to Create Bioweapons, Schneier on Security (April 18, 2023),

Kate Saenko, A Computer Scientist Breaks Down Generative AI's Hefty Carbon Footprint, Scientific American (May 25, 2023),

Benj Edwards, OpenAI execs warn of “risk of extinction” from artificial intelligence in new open letter, Ars Technica (May 30, 2023),

Chris Stokel-Walker, TechScape: Turns out there’s another problem with AI – its environmental toll, The Guardian (August 1, 2023),

Mitchell S. Jackson, Now We Got to Worry About AI Cops? Police departments are rushing headlong into machine learning. That’s going to spell even more trouble for Black and brown Americans. Esquire (September 7, 2023),

Scott Pelley, Aliza Chasan, Aaron Weisz, and Ian Flickinger, The risks and promise of artificial intelligence, according to the "Godfather of AI" Geoffrey Hinton, CBS News (October 8, 2023),

Bruce Schneier, AI Risks, Schneier on Security (October 9, 2023),

Isha Marathe, Generative AI May Worsen Access to Justice—At Least in the Short Term, ALM Global, LLC. (October 19, 2023),

Garance Burke and Matt O’Brien, Health providers say AI chatbots could improve care. But research says some are perpetuating racism, The Associated Press (October 20, 2023),

Generative AI: Ethics & Policies

The extreme doomsaying related to GAI has been so frightening that it has prompted many ethics discussions and the development of organizational and government policies in order to manage GAI.

How WIRED Will Use Generative AI Tools, Wired (May 22, 2023), – Wired magazine was quick to create policies around its use of GAI for stories. Transparency is a key aspect of such policies.

Rabihah Butler, Generative AI and the courts: Balancing efficiency and legal obligations, Thomson Reuters (August 28, 2023),

National Security Agency is starting an artificial intelligence security center, The Associated Press (September 28, 2023),

Foo Yun Chee, Exclusive: G7 to agree AI code of conduct for companies, Reuters (October 29, 2023),

Morgan Chalfant and Louise Matsakis, Biden to sign sweeping artificial intelligence order, Semafor (October 30, 2023),

Executive Order on the Safe, Secure, and Trustworthy Development and Use of Artificial Intelligence, The White House (October 30, 2023),

The Bletchley Declaration by Countries Attending the AI Safety Summit, 1-2 November 2023, UK.Gov (November 1, 2023),

Meta requires political advertisers to mark when deepfakes used, BBC News (November 9, 2023),

Fighting Back Against Generative AI

Now that generative AI has been released to a mass audience, we have to figure out how to adapt to it, hopefully in a way that nurtures humanity. However, given that there are always bad actors out to use any new tech for nefarious purposes, we’ll have to find ways to combat those forces. One primary way to fight back is by being able to identify content generated by AI, whether offensively (with creators acknowledging their use of GAI up-front) or defensively (figuring out whether something was created by GAI using digital forensics). If we know that an image, video, or article was put together using GAI, we can guard against falling for the wrong answers or propaganda it serves up. Artists have also found a direct way to fight GAI by corrupting its output, as explained in the Gizmodo article, Artists Can Fight Back Against AI by Killing Art Generators From the Inside, linked below.

GPTZero: - Tool for detecting text created by GAI

Greg Rosalsky and Emma Peaslee, This 22-year-old is trying to save us from ChatGPT before it changes writing forever, NPR – Planet Money (January 17, 2023),

Kyle Barr, Artists Can Fight Back Against AI by Killing Art Generators From the Inside, Gizmodo (Updated October 24, 2023),

Clive Thompson, Warning Labels For AI-Generated Text, Medium (October 31, 2023),

Isha Marathe, AI or Not, That is the Question: Inside the Burgeoning AI Detection Market, ALM Global, LLC. (November 10, 2023),

Maydeen Merino, FTC Announces 'Voice Cloning Challenge' to Prevent AI-Generated Audio Scams, ALM Global, LLC. (November 16, 2023),



While it appears I’ve unleashed a torrent of links related to generative AI above, this is but a fraction of what has come across my computer and phone screens in the past year on the topic. This area of technology continues to develop rapidly, along with the legal ramifications, whether through its use in law firms or in litigation and new laws.

The deluge of discussion on GAI shows that we’re paying attention and trying to process its wider potential effects on society. In response, we’re actively working to mitigate any negative effects.

If it feels as though we can’t adapt fast enough, Nicole Black, lawyer, legal tech journalist, and subject matter expertise and external education for MyCase, has an important reminder for us. During Bob Ambrogi’s November 11, 2023, Legaltech Week program, in relation to a conversation about the slow adoption rate of GAI among attorneys, she said, “It’s only been a year!”

We can’t expect that everyone will have adopted GAI and figured out its best uses in this short amount of time. However, by looking at the list of GAI articles compiled above, it’s apparent that we are making good strides in working it into our everyday lives.


Note: No generative AI was used in compiling this list or writing this article.